Vulvodynia study

Acupuncture for The Treatment of Vulvodynia Study

Electrodiagnostic functional sensory evaluation of

  1. 8.3% of women have vulvodynia Reed BD, Harlow SD, Sen A, Legocki LJ, Edwards RM, Arato N, Haefner HK. Prevalence and demographic characteristics of vulvodynia in a population-based sample. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011. By age 40 years, 7-8% in Boston and Minneapolis/St. Paul reported vulvar pain consistent with vulvodynia
  2. Vulvodynia: Assessment and Treatment Andrew T. Goldstein, MD,1,* Caroline F. Pukall, PhD,2,* Candace Brown, PharmD,3 Sophie Bergeron, PhD,4 Amy Stein, DPT,5 and Susan Kellogg-Spadt, PhD6 ABSTRACT Introduction: Vulvodynia constitutes a highly prevalent form of sexual pain in women, and current informatio
  3. Recent studies propose that one or more of the following may cause vulvodynia: • an injury to, or irritation of, the nerves that control sensation in the vulva • an abnormal response of vulvar cells to infection or trauma • genetic abnormalities that make cells overreact to inflammatio
  4. The effects of vulvodynia on pain, sexual function, quality of life, depression, and anxiety are investigated. The study's results are expected to be of value in the planning of clinical care in the medical area. High dropout rates and technical difficulties associated with using the platform are common in similar studies
  5. Vulvodynia, a gynecological condition characterized by constant or recurring complaints of vulvar itching, burning and/or painful sexual intercourse, is the subject of an ongoing study at Yale School of Medicine. For years, women experiencing chronic vulvar pain have been unable to find the relief and the treatment they so desperately need, said Robin Masheb, assistant professor of.
  6. Profiling Vulvodynia Based on Neurobiological and Behavioral Endophenotypes Researchers will genotype and image brains of vulvodynia patients in order to better understand how signals from the external genitalia are processed differently in the brains of patients
  7. e the urinary oxalate excretion patterns in patients with vulvodynia compared with controls and to evaluate antioxalate therapy in women with vulvar pain syndrome (vulvodynia)

Clinical Trial - Diagnosed with vulvar pain (vulvodynia)

  1. es how long the effect of acupuncture lasts in women with vulvodynia. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial, focused on two acupuncture protocols. Fifty-one patients who have had vulvodynia for more than 3 months will be recruited
  2. Vulvodynia is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva. Researchers and health care providers currently know little about why and how vulvodynia occurs—the condition and the pain have no known cause or cure
  3. The study, published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, shows that vulvodynia could affect as many as 14 million women in the U.S. The pain -- described as a burning or sharp pain at the opening of the vagina -- can be chronic or can come about with contact, like with bike-riding, sex, using a tampon or sitting for long periods of time
  4. Vulvodynia (vul-voe-DIN-e-uh) is chronic pain or discomfort around the opening of your vagina (vulva) for which there's no identifiable cause and which lasts at least three months. The pain, burning or irritation associated with vulvodynia can make you so uncomfortable that sitting for long periods or having sex becomes unthinkable
  5. In a recent study at the University of Minnesota, researchers found that despite painful symptoms associated with vulvodynia, the disorder ultimately had little effect on a woman's decision to conceive.. Photo Credit: Tatiana Vdb, CC, https://flic.kr/p/e4nLge. Vulvodynia is a chronic disorder that causes pain to the vulvar area and is often difficult to diagnose
  6. This study demonstrates that vulvodynia substantially impacts quality of life and sexual health. Furthermore, the significant associations between vulvodynia and other chronic pain syndromes underscore the need for awareness among health care providers in asking detailed questions about conditions such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome

Pregabalin for the Treatment of Vulvodynia - Full Text

  1. Specialties: We are looking for women to participate in a research study to help us learn about the effects of acupuncture on vulvodynia pain. Dr. Judith Schlaeger, PhD, CNM, LAc, is conducting this study at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Nursing. You will receive a full gynecological exam to confirm eligibility. If you meet study criteria, you will receive 10 acupuncture.
  2. Dr. Schlaeger is a widely esteemed expert in research related to the treatment of vulvodynia, a painful condition that affects 7 million American women
  3. 12/26/2018 1 Case Presentations Hope Haefner, MD Colleen K Stockdale, M.D., M.S. Nothing to disclose December 14, 2018 35 y.o. woman complains of severe burning o
  4. ary population-based data on the associations of vaginal symptoms, serum hormone levels and hormone use with chronic vulvar.
  5. One study using vulvodynia-based criteria demonstrated a relatively stable prevalence of 9.4% in women aged 18-70 years, with lower rates in those >70 years of age overall (2.4%) but similar rates..

Effect of Two Acupuncture Protocols on Vulvodynia - Full

Vulvodynia Study Research status. Completed. Overview of Study. Vulvodynia is a chronic disorder presenting with genital discomfort, burning and pain. The cause is unknown and symptoms often persist for years causing pain with insertion of tampons, sexual intercourse, pelvic examinations and activities such as bike riding. This was a 3 month. In 2015 the International Society for the Study of Women's Health, the International Pelvic Pain Society, the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease and the National Vulvodynia Association came together to agree on updated vulvodynia terminology to better serve women with these pain disorders Dr. Jen Gunter February 8, 2012. March 26, 2014. 31 Comments. on The low oxalate diet and vulvodynia: how a case report becomes snake oil. Restrictive diets, the most common being the low oxalate diet, are widely reported in the lay press and on-line for vulvodynia (a chronic pain condition of the vulva). In one study, 41% of women with chronic.

The Evidence-Based Vulvodynia Assessment Project: a national registry for the study of vulvodynia. J Reprod Med. 2015;60(5-6):223-235. 47. Reed BD, Harlow SD, Sen A, et al. Prevalence and. Study Title: Remote Mindfulness-Education Intervention for Women with Provoked Localized Vulvodynia: A Randomized Clinical Trial Overview and Key Information What am I being asked to do? We are asking you to take part in a research study. We do research studies to try to answer questions about how to treat conditions like vulvodynia Vulvodynia was defined in 2003 as vulvar discomfort, most often described as burning pain without relevant visible findings or a specific, clinically identifiable, neurologic disorder by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD). 1 The pain can be described as burning, itching, stinging, rawness, or irritation that may be localized to one area or generalized. Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD), the International Society for the Study of Women Sexual Health (ISSWSH), and the International Pelvic Pain Society (IPPS) developed the 2015 ISSVD, ISSWSH, and IPPS Consensus Terminology and Classification of Persistent Vulvar Pain and Vulvodynia (referred to as the 2015 consensus terminology)

Research - The Centers for Vulvovaginal Disorders - vulvodyni

CureTogether's study compiled responses over four years from 1,969 people with vulvodynia, who rated the effectiveness of 120 different treatments. We'd like to thank those who participated. And just as they shared their experience with treatments, we're freely and openly sharing the results of the vulvodynia study Vulvodynia is an embarrassing illness; I haven't ever told my two daughters! However, my niece also has it, so maybe there is something hereditary going on. Vulvodynia has far-reaching consequences: I am 66 now and have had it since my twenties Now, a Boston University School of Public Health study led by graduate researchers offers some new clues, finding that the risk of vulvodynia is increased by wearing tight-fitting jeans or pants or by removing hair from the mons pubis (the soft mound of skin above the genitals). Published in the Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, it is the.

Vulvodynia is a problem most family physicians can expect to encounter. It is a syndrome of unexplained vulvar pain, frequently accompanied by physical disabilities, limitation of daily activities. Bornstein J, Preti M, Simon JA, et al. Descriptors of Vulvodynia: A Multisocietal Definition Consensus (International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, the International Society for the Study of Women Sexual Health, and the International Pelvic Pain Society) The current International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) definition of vulvodynia is a vulvar pain of at least three months' duration, without a clear, identifiable cause, which may have potential associated factors. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and is an idiopathic pain disorder. Etiology. The cause of vulvodynia is. The study was conducted by Dr. Donders in 2010 and was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Cutaneous Lysate in the treatment of provoked vestibulodynia; a form of a vulvar pain condition. In 1999, at the annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, a two-year trial of specific pain terminology was proposed. This new terminology includes generalized vulvar dysesthesia (VDY), formerly known as dysesthetic or essential vulvodynia, burning vulva syndrome, pudendal neuralgia, or perineal pain.

Ganz is also a member of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISVVD) and carries years of experience and training in helping patients understand the causes or irritants of their Vulvodynia Disease as well as developing an appropriate treatment plan to eliminate their uncomfortable symptoms Vulvodynia, characterized by burning and stinging pain of the vulva, is a chronic pain syndrome with a 7-16% lifetime prevalence. 1 To date, vulvodynia randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been limited in number, geographic region of sampling, and demographic diversity. The few published vulvodynia RCTs find no difference in pain or other. Today's case study focuses on the evaluation and treatment of a patient that came to the clinic with a diagnosis of vulvodynia. The patient was a 41-year-old female who came to PHRC with a five month history of constant vulvar pain described as red hot, itchy, and stinging. In addition, the patient had suprapubic and abdominal pain

One study by Reed et al. reported that, on average, symptoms of vulvodynia did not worsen after a pregnancy, finding that 40% of women had no change in symptoms, while 30% of women had a decrease in symptoms. However, this study was based on 17 women with vulvodynia and was restricted to a clinic population Participants included in this study must have been diagnosed with generalized vulvodynia or provoked vestibulodynia, vulvar pain, by physicians such as obstetrician or gynecologist, pain specialist or primary care doctor, etc. Patient must have had vulvar pain for more than 3 months, with current pain score of 4 or higher, on the zero to ten 11. Vulvodynia, or vulvar pain of an unknown cause, has a significant negative impact on a woman's health, self-esteem, relationships, quality of life, and work productivity. Women can have vulvar pain from a specific etiology, pain without an identifiable cause, or both. Treatment must therefore address a wide range of potential etiologies as well. Vulvodynia. 1. vulvodynia Dr Samia Mohamad Eid Prof of ob & gyne Al Azhar University Damietta. 2. Vulvodynia International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) 2015 2 Chronic, intractable vulvar pain in the absence of any visible, physical finding or any objective abnormalities such as infections or dermatosis. 3

Vulvodynia ⋆ Meno Martha International Menopause Directory

Vulvodynia has an estimated lifetime prevalence varying between 8% and 28%. 1-3 Typical symptoms include burning, stinging, itching or stabbing; with the diagnosis being one of exclusion. 2-4 Pudendal neuralgia, like vulvodynia, is a pain condition diagnosed clinically in the absence of other pathology. 5 Characteristic symptoms include urinary. Vulvodynia: a consideration of clinical and methodological research challenges and recommended solutions. Abstract: Vulvodynia, an idiopathic chronic vulvar pain, is a prevalent genital pain condition that results in significant impairment to sexual, relational, and psychological functioning of affected women and their romantic partners The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological and physiological processes and how these interact in the case of vulvodynia. The study design consisted of a retrospective review of predominantly premenopausal women presenting with vulvodynia via analyses of questionnaires, psychometric tests, sexual history, surface electromyographic (sEMG) assessments, and.

Introduction. Provoked vulvodynia (PVD) is the most common cause of vulvar pain and is defined as 'vulvar pain of at least three months duration, without clear, identifiable cause, which may have potential associated factors' ().These associated factors are, for example, fibromyalgia, mood and sleep disorders, fatigue, dyspareunia, micturition symptoms and irritable bowel syndrome (2, 3) [Case Study Summary, NT, Age 25. Physiotherapist, engaged, fiancée a medical practitioner. Early onset of bladder symptoms and pain.Ten years after onset of symptoms diagnosed with Bladder Pain Syndrome and Vulvodynia.Very health conscious, living a healthy lifestyle, cautions with diet The study in mice marks a turning point in vulvodynia research with a mouse model and a known cause, scientists can now work toward uncovering the molecular basis of the disorder, and testing. Vulvodynia. A subset of interstitial cystitis (IC) patients has vulvar pain known as vulvodynia. An alternative spelling is vulvadynia. Vulvodynia is chronic vulvar pain without an identifiable cause. Vulvodynia affects women of all ages, beginning as early as adolescence. According to a Harvard study funded by the National Institutes of Health. Vulvodynia is defined by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) as 'chronic vulvar discomfort, most often described as burning pain, occurring in the absence of relevant findings or a specific, clinically identifiable, neurologic disorder'. 4 It is diagnosed when other causes of vulvar pain have been excluded (Table 1) or when pain persists despite adequate.

Vulvodynia: Get the Facts - The National Vulvodynia

Internet-based treatment for vulvodynia (EMBLA) - Study

  1. The Global Vulvodynia Treatment Market size was estimated at USD 42.52 Billion in 2020 and expected to reach USD 46.39 Billion in 2021, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) 9.43% from 2020 to.
  2. Background A recent Dutch study in general practice showed a clear relationship between the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and symptoms suggestive of provoked vulvodynia (PVD). PVD accounts for the largest group of vulvar pains, but is often not recognised by GPs. Aim To investigate whether diagnostic uncertainty about VVC in general practice could also point to the diagnosis of.
  3. Dyspareunia is a relevant symptom of patients with vulvodynia. Vaginal microbiome has known an important role in local immune-inflammatory responses and it may be important pathogenic mechanism in vulvodynia. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of vaginal microbiome and vulvodynia
  4. Promising treatments: A 2008 study from the University of Michigan found that treating vulvodynia as a neuropathic pain disorder in girls age four to 11 brought dramatic improvement. Anti-seizure medication, nerve blocks and tricyclic antidepressants can all dull the pain. When vulvodynia affects the vestibule, surgery can remove the overly sensitive tissue
  5. According to an NIH-funded Harvard study, an estimated six million women in America suffer from vulvodynia. Despite the astonishingly high number of those affected, the pain is often left.
  6. If you are a women suffering from vulvar pain and interested in participating in the Acupuncture for the Treatment of Vulvodynia Study, please visit our webs..
  7. The study also found that women who experienced pain when first using a tampon were seven to eight times more likely to have vulvodynia at some point in their lives. Between 10% and 25% of women with interstitial cystitis—a bladder condition that causes frequent urination with burning—also have symptoms of vulvodynia

Apr 27, 2021 (The Expresswire) -- Global Vulvodynia Treatment Market(2021-2025) provides an all-inclusive assessment of the market and offers a precise.. Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease Task Force to de-scribe any vulvar pain [2]. There are no standardized clas-sifications for vulvodynia largely because it is a multi-factorial condition in which ce rtain subsets coexist within others. Generalized vulvodynia, or essential vulvodynia, usually occurs in postmenopausal or perimenopausa Vulvodynia is the most common cause of pain during sexual intercourse in pre-menopausal women [2]. Although no epidemiological study of prevalence has currently been carried out worldwide, it is estimated that vulvodynia affects 8-10% of women of all ages [3]. In an epidemiological study carried out in the United States, they found that up t The evidence-based vulvodynia assessment project: A national registry for the study of vulvodynia. Georgine Lamvu, Ruby H N Nguyen, Lara J. Burrows, Andrea Rapkin, Kathryn Witzeman, Richard P. Marvel, David Hutchins, Steven S. Witkin, Christin Veasley, Roger Fillingim, Denniz Zolnoun The study, published in the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology, examined the prevalence of the condition, which causes vulvar pain, among 2,542 women in southeastern Michigan.Over a three-year period, researchers found that four out of 100 women who didn't experience any vulvodynia symptoms at the start of the study went on to develop new symptoms indicative of the condition

The British Society for the Study of Vulval Diseases has recently published guidelines for the management of vulvodynia that focus on the multidisciplinary approach to patients and the importance of a clinical lead to assess, diagnose, and triage patients to the different supportive specialties.14 The guidelines are based on the best. Online Research Study - Vulvodynia. NVA supporter Alexandra Carmichael, a scientist and former vulvodynia sufferer, is conducting a study on vulvodynia through the website she co-founded, CureTogether. Specifically, she is gathering self-reported data on symptoms, treatments, and triggers for vulvodynia. Her goal is to discover associations in.

NCI COVID-19 in Cancer Patients, NCCAPS Study. The NCI COVID-19 in Cancer Patients Study, or NCCAPS, is a natural history study of COVID-19 in people with cancer. In a natural history study, researchers follow people and collect medical and other information about them over time to learn more about how a disease and its symptoms develop and change Vulvodynia actually precludes itching because the burning and pain cause an intolerance to scratching. Over the years, the terminology used to describe vulvodynia has varied. The term vulvodynia has now been recommended by the International Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease (ISSVD) to describe any vulvar pain, regardless of etiology She is the first researcher to conduct a NIH-sponsored study to determine whether acupuncture is a viable treatment option for vulvodynia. She recently concluded a smaller study involving 36 women that found a significant reduction in vulvar pain and painful sexual intercourse and an increase in overall sexual function

Health Study) who screened positive for vulvodynia and completed at least four follow-up surveys. Outcome measures included remission without relapse, relapse (after remission), and persistence of a positive vulvodynia screen. Multinomial regression was used to assess factors associated with outcomes psychosocial factors. (Petersen, CD et al.2008) A further discussion of vulvodynia including various types and further specifications as to symptoms, etiology and treatment is not relevant to this specific case study. However differentiating between vaginismus and vulvodynia is necessary for proper treatment, and frequently women have both Vulvodynia be gone? Botox study. Posted on September 6, 2006 by admin. In this small study pain levels dropped from 8.3/10 to 1.4/10 without recurrence over the year of followup. One or two botox injection sessions were needed. Int J Impot Res. 2006 May 18; [Epub ahead of print] Botulinum toxin A for the management of vulvodynia. Yoon H, Chung. Dysaesthetic vulvodyniaDysaesthetic vulvodynia This term was introduced by ISSVDThis term was introduced by ISSVD {international society for study of vulval{international society for study of vulval diseases}.diseases}. It is defined as 'chronic vulvar discomfort'It is defined as 'chronic vulvar discomfort' characterized by burning. The term vulvodynia was originally coined by McKay , and it has been adopted by the International Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease Task Force to describe any vulvar pain . There are no standardized classifications for vulvodynia largely because it is a multifactorial condition in which certain subsets coexist within others

Of 441 women screening positive for vulvodynia during the study, 239 completed 4 additional surveys. Of these, 23 (9. 6%) had consistently positive vulvodynia screens, 121 (50. 6%) remitted without relapse, and 95 (39. 7%) relapsed following remission One epidemiologic study found that it affects about 16% of women in the United States at some point in their lives. Because vulvodynia symptoms mimic those of common vulvovaginal infections and there are typically no visible abnormalities, adolescents and women with vulvodynia are often misdiagnosed

The Woman to Woman Health Study reported here indicated a number of factors associated with worsening vulvodynia outcomes (relapse and/or persistence), including the presence of provoked pain, more severe pain with or after intercourse, pain with oral sex or partner touch, higher rating of worse pain ever, longer duration of pain, or screening. In particular, as seen in this study, in vulvodynia treatment without pelvic floor muscle spasm, the effect of botulinum toxin A may be based on the neuronal uptake of the toxin or its metabolites. Introduction. Vulvodynia is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology affecting 7-8% of women in population-based epidemiological studies. 1,2 Vulvodynia is usually described as burning, stabbing, itching, stinging, and feeling of irritation. The 2015 Consensus and Terminology and Classification of Persistent Vulvar Pain and Vulvodynia 3 divides vulvar pain into two categories

Methods: Survey-based assessment in a longitudinal population-based study of women (the Woman to Woman Health Study) who screened positive for vulvodynia and completed at least four follow-up surveys. Outcome measures included remission without relapse, relapse (after remission), and persistence of a positive vulvodynia screen Vulvodynia has been defined by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases (ISSVD) as vulval discomfort, most often described as a burning pain, occurring in the absence of. Daily Goals in Couples with Vulvodynia Study by Gillian Boudreau | Feb 26, 2020 | Past Studies - Pending Summary In this study, couples completed longitudinal and daily diary surveys to help us better understand the links that exist between genital pain, sexuality and other interpersonal and psychological factors, for women with PVD and their. The feasibility study involved thirty women with vulvodynia for at least 3 months. The patients received perineally applied ESWT treatment weekly (3 000 pulses each for 4 consecutive weeks). The device used was a standard electromagnetic shock wave unit with a focused shock wave handpiece. The access area was changed after every 500 pulses The present laboratory study aimed to investigate empathic response and disclosure among women with vulvodynia and their spouses, in relation to their sexual satisfaction and sexual distress. The Interpersonal Process Model of Intimacy framework was adopted because i

» Vulvodynia as defined as chronic vulvar discomfort or pain, characterized by burning, stinging, irritation or rawness of the female genitalia in cases in which there is no infection or skin disease of the vulva or vagina causing these symptoms The overall incidence of vulvodynia has been reported as 4.2 cases per 100 person-years in one population based study, with others estimating that persistent vulvar pain affects 9 to 18 percent of women at some point during their lifetime Treating Vulvodynia with Acupuncture Study in the Chicago Area. TREATING VULVODYNIA WITH ACUPUNTURE STUDY IN THE CHICAGO AREA. My name is Judy Schlaeger, LAc, CNM. I am a licensed acupuncturist and certified nurse midwife. I have a private acupuncture practice and work as a CNM for Access Community Health Network in Chicago Jeon Y, Kim Y, Shim B, et al. A retrospective study of the management of vulvodynia. Korean J Urology. 2013;54:48-52. Bornstein J, Tuma R, Farajun Y, Azran A, Zarfati D. Topical nifedipine for the treatment of localized provoked vulvodynia: a placebo-controlled study. J Pain. 2010;11:1403-1409. Eppsteiner E, Boardman L, Stockdale CK

Yale researcher enrolling women with vulvodynia in

So in 2015, I developed an acupuncture protocol for a pilot study treating vulvodynia with acupuncture. In this pilot study, we found that women had a significant reduction in vulvar pain, and pain with intercourse, and they had an increase in overall sexual function. Because women were helped in our pilot study, the National Institutes of. A study in 2012 found that women with vulvodynia are more likely than other women to have other chronic pain conditions, but scientists are still attempting to understand why. However, the. Objective . The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD) and not exhibiting (FMS) comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design . The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C) Vulvodynia is a puzzling syndrome in which women feel chronic pain in the vulva, which consists of the external genitals (including the clitoris, the pubic mound, and the labia). Women with the condition describe the pain as a burning, itching, rawness, or stinging, particularly during urination. This vulvar discomfort ranges from annoying to.

Find a Study on Vulvodynia NICHD - Eunice Kennedy

A total of 34 women diagnosed with vulvodynia were included in this study. Patients were treated with 0.2% nitroglycerin cream in the clinic. The cream was applied directly to the skin at the genital/vulvar area where the pain was located. Patients who did not experience any adverse side effects were instructed to use the cream at home at least three times per week, 5-10 minutes prior to. Vulvodynia is not a kind of infection, and the exact cause of vulvodynia is still a subject of study. That's why it gets difficult for the healthcare providers to diagnose the disease properly, and many women have to stay away from the treatment owing to the lack of diagnosis of the disease The study was conducted by Dr. Donders in 2010 and was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Cutaneous Lysate in the treatment of provoked vestibulodynia; a form of a vulvar pain condition called vulvodynia Vulvodynia has been estimated to occur in between 7% and 8% of women by age 40. 49 Vulvodynia and chronic pelvic pain have also been associated with fibromyalgia. 50-52 In a population-based study in Minnesota, researchers examined the prevalence of vulvodynia and other central sensitization syndromes. Of 1,890 women screened, the odds ratio of. Introduction. The International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) proposes two categories of persistent vulvar pain: vulvar pain caused by a specific disorder (such as infection or dermatitis) and vulvodynia. 1 Vulvodynia is defined as vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, without clear identifiable cause, which may have potential associated factors

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